Дил розларим сизга армугон!
Дилсора Фозилова
Dilsora Fozilova

2/23/2013 7:47:45 PM
Мен сендан кетмадим

Шеърим менга қараб йиғлама,
Мен сендан кетмадим, кетмадим.
Кетдим дарёлардан бош олиб,
Кетдим кўкрагимга тош солиб,
Кетдим суйганлардан ҳам тониб,
Бир сендан кетмадим, кетмадим.

Гоҳ ўчди, кўмилди изларим,
Япроқдай титради тизларим,
Тош қотди оғриқдан ҳисларим,
Йўқотдим дунёни, бўзладим,
Бир сени йўқотсам изладим,
Бир сендан кетмадим, кетмадим.

Ўзим гўдак эдим, кўз ёрдим,
Сен эдинг туғилган суюнчим.
Сен эдинг дарддошим, куюнчим,
Изтироб, умидим, ўтинчим…
Мен орзулар тўкиб етмадим,
Бир сендан кетмадим, кетмадим.

Соядек эргашдинг қаро тун,
Мазлум девор аро сену-мен,
Йиғласам жўр бўлиб йиғладинг,
Куйсам, кўкни ёриб куйладинг,
Тингладинг, тингласам сўйладинг,
Мен сенга лойиқ сўз битмадим,
Бир сендан кетмадим, кетмадим.

Бу дунёнинг шоирлари кўп,
Даҳо, элга доирлари кўп,
Бадавлату-қодирлари кўп,
Ким бор мендек руҳи эзилган,
Сирти тоғ, ҳислари тўзилган,
Мен хоҳиш торини чертмадим,
Бир сендан кетмадим, кетмадим.

Шеърим менга қараб йиғлама,
Чанг боссанг қўл тегмас жавонда,
Ойлаб қолиб кетсанг айвонда,
Бу шундай чопа-чоп замон-да,
Билмадим мен эрта қайдаман,
Баъри-бир мен сенга қайтаман,
Мен сендан кетмадим, кетмадим.
(Давомини укинг...)

2/3/2013 9:06:31 AM
Imagery in the Shakespeare’s sonnet “That Time of Year”

Images are the pictures a poet draws in the mind’s eye of the reader through his words. Sometimes these images do not explicitly contain the meaning of the words used. Rather, they hold implicit meanings which the reader attempts to interpret and ascertain. Shakespeare’s "That Time of Year" is a great poem through which to analyse imagery. The beauty of this poem is that there are three quatrains in the poem and each of them holds amazing metaphors. And all three metaphors signify one theme – aging, signs of the last stage of the life.

In first verse Shakespeare talks about a certain time of year. When reading these lines the reader will likely feel the thrilling whisper of the author, saying, “That’s where I am. This is the stage of my life I am talking about”
“That time of year thou mayst in me behold
When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang” (Bevington pp-889)
The green leaves are turned to yellow and fall from the branches. Its late fall. This image represents author’s dreams, wishes and hopes those slowly turned yellow and fall from the branch. It’s a hopeless time of his life.
“Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,
Bare ruin’d choirs, where late the sweet birds sang.”
The author is comparing his body to a tree, which lost its leaves; shaking and trembling against the cold and there are no more singing birds around. It is lonely and cold…

In the second verse he is comparing his aging with the twilight of the day.
“In me thou seest the twilight of such day
As after sunset fadeth in the west,” (Bevington pp-889)
It is be found just before nightfall - after the sun sank in the west. The day is over but some dim light from the setting sun still remains.
“Which by and by black night doth take away,
Death’s second self, that seals up all in rest.” (Bevington pp-889)
The author knows the black night soon will be upon him. The coming night is dark; it is lifeless like a death, which puts everyone to sleep. This quatrain makes me feel, that speaker is ready for his own ending, and he talks about it with very powerful images.

In his third metaphor Shakespeare draws the image of the dying fire:
“In me thou see’st the glowing of such fire
That on the ashes of his youth doth lie,” (Bevington pp-889)
As the fire dies beautiful red coals slowly sink into the ashes. The author is saying his youth once was like bright flames. Now, however, the shimmering coals are lying on his youth.
“As the death-bed whereon it must expire”
As the fire is about to die, ashes are covering it. The image inside the image, fire is in its “death-bed”. There is another philosophical meaning in the last line of the quatrain.
“Consumed with that which it was nourish’d by” (Bevington pp-889)
The fire that is being consumed by nature was nourished by nature itself. Also this line explains his way of thinking about aging. He was born, grew up, lived his life and got old and is now going to die by the power of nature. This poem was addressed to someone who loves author very much,
“This thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong,
To love that well which thou must leave ere long.” (Bevington pp-889)
Speaker says to his beloved “you must sense the changes and the signs of death and it will make your love stronger. Because you know there is not much time for love left, soon death will part us”
Shakespeare’s this sonnet contains some beautiful imagery which gives life to it’s theme of aging.

*Bevington, David. Ed. The Necessary Shakespeare. Third Edition. United States: Pearson Educaton, Inc, 2009. pp-889. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. .
(Давомини укинг...)

2/3/2013 9:01:35 AM
A Doll for my Little Sister

I was waiting for the long weekend to buy flower baskets to arrange on the sides of the entrance door. The weather forecast predicted frost for Monday night, and it rained all day on Tuesday. On Wednesday I didn’t have my afternoon lecture at the university, so I decided to shop for my baskets. On my way, I stopped and got my mail from the mailbox. Besides my provincial and federal student loan confirmation, there was an envelope from Edmonton Police. I could feel the pit of my stomach tighten with dread. I had never received mail that pleased me from the EPS. I sat in the car anxiously and opened the envelope. As soon as I saw the picture, indistinct apart from the license plate of my Ford Escape on the road, my eyes searched for the amount required to pay for speeding.
“One hundred and forty-five dollars?”
“When did I speed?”
“Damn it!” I forcefully shoved the letter into the glove box above the passenger seat and put my head against the steering wheel. I was ready to cry.
I quickly came to the realization that one-hundred and forty-five dollars was quite a bit of money while I was still a student at the university, unemployed, and having the responsibility of taking care an immense mortgage. I then shifted towards anger, decrying that the police service is unreal. I again scanned the letter and pictured the intersection where I had been caught speeding – 14 km an hour over the limit.” I even didn’t know that the speed limit at the intersection of 118 Avenue and 122nd Street was only 50 km an hour. As I walked into the Superstore I was thinking of different ways of cutting some expenses to pay off my speeding ticket. Maybe I should skip buying flower baskets this summer. I rationalized that Alberta’s non-existent summers didn’t warrant baskets. Maybe I should buy a few cheap small flower cones and make my own baskets to make up for the speeding ticket. That way I will be able to balance out the speeding ticket fee.
I grabbed some necessary groceries and walked to the checkout. As I stood behind an older woman, I heard a little boy talking to the cashier. His voice was like jingle bells. I looked over the shoulder of the older woman to see the cashier handing this little boy his money back; he couldn’t have been more than 5 or 6 years old. The young cashier girl said,
"I’m sorry, but you don’t have enough money to buy this doll.’’
The boy looked crestfallen and turned to the older lady.
’’Granny, are you sure I don’t have enough money?’’
’’You know that you don’t have enough money to buy this doll, my dear" - she replied. She then asked him to wait for a minute while she picked up something she forgot to get. She left quickly.
The little boy was still holding the doll in his hand. Finally, I walked toward him and I asked him whom he wished to give this doll to.
"It’s the doll that my sister loved the most and wanted so much for Christmas. She was sure that Santa Claus would bring it to her".
"Maybe Santa Claus will bring it to her after all, and maybe you should not worry". I smiled.
"But…” He stammered, with dejection in his eyes.
"Santa Claus can’t bring it to her where she is now. I have to give the doll to my mommy so that she can give it to my sister when she goes there". His eyes began to well up with tears.
"My sister has gone to be with God. Daddy says that mommy is going to see God very soon too, so I thought that she could take the doll with her to give it to my sister.’’ He wiped his nose with his forearm.
My heart nearly stopped. The little boy looked up at me and firmly said,
"I told daddy to tell mommy not to go yet. I need her to wait until I come back from shopping". Then he pulled a photo of himself at the playground from the pocket of his sweater and showed me. He looked very cheerful in the picture; he was laughing and spraying water at someone.
"I want mommy to take my picture with her so she won’t forget me. I love my mommy and I wish she didn’t have to leave me, but daddy says that she has to go to be with my little sister". He wiped a teardrop from his cheek with his sleeve.
Then remembering the doll, he looked down at it again and became very quiet. I quickly reached for my wallet and grabbed a twenty dollar bill.
"I suppose we should check again, just in case you do have enough money for the doll!’’ I said.
"Okay” he replied with doubtful tone. "I hope I do have enough". I added my money to his without him seeing and we started to count it. There was enough for the doll, with change left over. He didn’t get excited, but his bewildered eyes were full of appreciation.
“Thank you God for giving me enough money!” The tone of his voice was so innocent and full of faith. Then he looked at me and added,
"I asked last night, before I went to sleep for God to make sure I had enough money to buy this doll, so my mommy could give it to my sister. He heard me! I also wanted to have enough money to buy a white rose for my mommy, but I didn’t dare ask God for too much. But he gave me enough to buy the doll and a white rose anyways. My mommy loves white roses.”
I could not fight my tears anymore and looked away to hide them from the boy. He clasped one of his small hands so tightly around the money, staring at the doll in the other. A few minutes later, while the cashier was scanning through my groceries, the old lady finally returned to the line. I paid for my groceries and left in a totally different state of mind from when I entered the supermarket.
My heart was heavy like a winter jacket that had been forgotten outside in the frosty, rainy night. My emotions were so unstable and my feelings so ambivalent: for a moment life seemed too short and precious, and for another, unfair with too much heartache. I cried intermittently making my way through the garden centre. I bought two baskets of flowers without worrying about my speeding ticket.
I found myself wishing I could know what happened to the boy’s mom and sister. I unconsciously and irrationally decided they had been in a car accident, and felt immense guilt for speeding. When I got home I found myself digging into local news websites, wishing to find anything related to that little boy’s family. I knew discovering the reason for the little boy’s loss would not change anything, but for an unknown reason I was eager to find out.
The next morning I went to my garage and started to go through the recycled newspapers. First, I found an article in a week-old local newspaper which mentioned a drunken man in a truck, who hit a car occupied by a young woman and a little girl. The little girl died right away and the mother was left in a critical state. The family had to decide whether to continue life support because the young woman would not be able to recover from her coma.
My heart started to beat faster. It was a clue to the mystery. I learned her name and I had no doubt that the young woman was the boy’s mom and the little girl his sister.
“But when did she die?” “Maybe there are more articles about the accident?” “Maybe someone wrote something about the faithful little boy the woman left behind?” I kept going through piles of newspapers. I couldn’t find anything else, but when I searched her name on Google I found a few stories related to her case. Also, I got to know that the young woman had passed away and her funeral was taking place at the Robertson-Wesley United Church on Thursday. I checked the calendar on my desktop in a rush. It was Thursday.
I felt an overwhelming compulsion to go – white roses in hand; I went to the funeral home where the body of the young woman was present so people could pay their last respects. The church was tall and elegant. Inside the church, two entrances were decorated with beautiful flowers – reminiscent of heaven. Even the smell inside the church felt so delightful. The huge room was full of people. Perhaps the same people who sent the little angel to heaven with their tears and prayers were sending her mom to be with her.
As I was not Christian, I went to church only a few times in my life and this was the first time I had gone to a funeral. I felt nervous. I looked around secretly, worried if anyone would ask why I was there. I didn’t know anyone here. I grabbed a brochure beside the entrance and quietly walked to the last pews. A photograph of her with the little girl was on the brochure. Both were so beautiful and smiling. The woman had long blonde hair and the little girl had golden blonde hair as well. Inside the brochure, there was a poem and some information about the service.
God saw you getting tired
When a cure was not to be
So He closed his arms
Around you and whispered
“Come to Me”
You didn’t deserve what
You went through,
So He gave you rest.
God’s garden must be beautiful,
He only takes the best.
And when we saw you sleeping
So peaceful and free from pain,
We could not wish you back to suffer that again.
But you will always be missed and loved!
The ceremony was beautifully conducted. I had never witnessed a Christian funeral ceremony; maybe this was the way funerals take place all the time, but being new to Canada, I did not know much about Canadian culture and Christian faith. The brother of the deceased read a eulogy. He told some stories of her childhood; everyone laughed and cried at the same time. It was long and heartbreaking. During his speech, her brother had to continually pause as he couldn’t control his tears.
After all the funerary services were completed, people started to walk past the casket and pay their respect. She was there, peacefully lying, holding a beautiful white rose in her hand with the photo of the little boy and the doll placed over her chest. I left the church, teary-eyed, feeling that my life had been changed forever. The love that the little boy had for his mother and sister is still, to this day, hard to conceive of, and in a fraction of a second, a drunk driver had taken all this away from him.
(Давомини укинг...)

2/3/2013 9:01:15 AM
Finding a Piece of my Homeland at the Muttart Conservatory

Every time I drove by, I wondered what those imposing glass pyramids were shining in the river valley. “Museum” said someone once with a dreadfully monotonous tone. Since then, I stopped wondering about it. I never suspected one day I would find a beautiful oasis in those glass pyramids that connects me to my beloved homeland.
Even before I entered the temperate place, a rainforest environment with orchids, sub-tropical plants and lush greenery – I smelled the abundant aroma of peach, apple, fig and pomegranate trees mixed with the smell of the moist soil. It was extraordinary… the breeze alone coming from that room could awaken my childhood memories.

It was after my tenth birthday and first spring after my dad’s death. One sunny morning in late March, I woke up from the noise of birds in our garden. Without thinking, I got up and walked from my bedroom to the long corridor with my pajamas still on. I pushed the double door that opened to our garden and shielded my eyes with my left arm. It was too bright for my sleepy eyes. The morning light cast a long shadow of my body on the corridor floor. And this aroma…I deeply breathed in the morning air with my eyes closed. It felt incredibly pleasant. I walked into the garden barefooted. The stone sidewalk was warm, the sun had already been beating down upon it for hours before I’d woken up and my feet welcomed the warmth of it. A light wind was tenderly shaking the top branches of the trees. Cherry, apricot, and apple trees were covered with white flowers just like a bride wearing a white wedding dress. There were many different flowerbeds in the middle of the garden. The commanding and wide fruit trees encircled the whole garden. I quietly walked towards the colorful poppy island in the centre of the garden and I laid on the sidewalk. The white petals from the apple and apricot trees were dancing in the air. I felt like my dad’s spirit was also flying in the air with those petals. I closed my eyes and listened to the sound of water from the stream that cut through our garden. I was surrounded by a splendor which words are not enough to describe.

The temperate environment of the pyramid evoked memories I didn’t realize that were still alive. The view was just like a stolen piece of my homeland. I was born in Bukhara, one of the ancient cities of Uzbekistan. Bukhara has long and hot summers and short but cold winters. The long Albertan winters made me deeply appreciate the climate and natural landscape of my country.
I often craved the smell of the earth after the morning rain; I craved the sweet aroma of peach, apricot and pomegranate trees in harvesting season. Snowflakes remind me of the flying petals in the air. Many times I locked myself in my bedroom and went through the old pictures from my hometown. Those pictures helped me to find peace in my anxious heart. Perhaps it was just a psychological escape from the melancholy but I didn’t know any other way to deal with my sadness.

A huge pomegranate tree was growing right beside the entrance of this temperate environment didn’t have any flowers or fruits but still looked like and smelled like the ones we had in our garden. There also was a fig tree that was bigger and had a stronger body than what we had in Bukhara. Perhaps people in my country didn’t allow them to get too big and strong, otherwise it would be too difficult to protect them from the cold. Usually people would cut the young sub-tropical trees when they are still young; about twenty centimeters up from the ground, to make the side branches grow stronger. Fig and pomegranate trees are very vulnerable to cold and we had to cover them with a sizable amount of dirt in winter.

As I walked further, my eyes caught the blossomed Nargis flowers around the waterfall and I went closer. In my town people believe that Nargis’ brings bad luck. They say Nargis represents the evil-hearted, beautiful princess who causes a lot of grief to men. As Nargis’ have hollow stems, I heard someone saying small poisonous snakes live in the stems of the Nargis’. One of my favorite poets wrote a poem that says “Even if that snake stabs his poisonous teeth, let me press my lips on your petals my unfaithful Nargis”. I always laughed, why every beautiful living thing must epitomize unfaithfulness? There was something surprising in every step in Muttart. I felt very emotional and attached. I wanted to touch every plant, and smell every flower. While I was driving away, I felt the pleasure of curing homesickness. Discovering the living image of my motherland in the middle of Edmonton was one of the most astonishing experiences I’ve had since I moved to Canada.
(Давомини укинг...)

1/12/2013 1:21:13 PM
Олис юртда омон бўлганим басми?

Олис юртда жонинг омон бўлса бас,
Маъюс шивирлайди ҳар гал ўша сас,
Ҳар сафар сиқади кўксимни қафас,
Олис юртда омон бўлганим басми?

Бардош қадалганда суягинг қадар,
Соч юлиб тақдирни қарғасанг нетар?
Темирдай ”мард она” бўлганинг етар,
Олис юртда омон бўлганим басми?

Қўлингдаги титроқ, сочингдаги оқ,
Бошинг остонада йўлимга муштоқ,
Ҳеч нима бермадим қайғудан кўпроқ,
Олис юртда омон бўлганим басми?

Дуоларинг менинг фаришталарим,
Омадим, қудратим, жон ришталарим,
Балолардан йироқ тутганим маним,
Олис юртда омон бўлганим басми?

Мен сени соғиндим, кел бугун – дегин,
Иложин қилгину, ел бугун – дегин,
Айтилмас илинжлар кўксингда тугун,
Олис юртда омон бўлганим басми?

Маҳзур мажнунтолга суянмай беҳол
Дуодан тўхта-ю, бир бор уввос сол,
Ўксиб ўтаётган ҳар лаҳзанг увол,
Олис юртда омон бўлганим басми?

Ёстиғим ҳам қоғоз, умрим ҳам қоғоз,
Қалам қитирлатиб ўтар қишу ёз,
Хаёлим ўғирлар йиғлаган овоз,
Олис юртда омон бўлганим басми?

Мен ҳам азобдаман, меҳрингга зорман,
Ўзим истиқболман, ўзим заволман,
Кўксим эзиб ётган ғамгин саволман,
Олис юртда омон бўлганим басми?

Бебаҳо юртимдан қарзим бор она,
Кўксим шох нийятлар тўлган кошона,
Бир нима бермасам оғрик жаҳона,
Олис юртда омон бўлганим басми?

”Иймонинг бут килсин, жонингни омон”
Суҳбатимиз шундай тугар ҳар замон,
Сен иста, мен этгум бажо онажон,
Олис юртда омон бўлганим басми?
(Давомини укинг...)

1/12/2013 1:17:16 PM
Falling from the Global Scope: What Does Globalization Mean for Uzbekistan?

“Globalization appears as an inexorable force – perhaps of progress, perhaps simply of a capitalist juggernaut, but in any case irresistible.”i

Craig Calhoun

Globalization is understood as the unintentional erasure of differences and cultural specificities worldwide due to the mobilized economy, information technology, production exchange and spread of democratic ideology. Advanced communication technology, increases in the mobility of capital in the global arena and deepening international relationships (both political and economic) are the most significant changes of our time that have accelerated globalization in the world. However, many countries are not open to the natural progression of globalization and try to slow it down with state censorship and passive international capital exchange. Dr. Bolton argues there are still a few states remaining free from the international oligarchy, and Uzbekistan is one of those few states whose maintenance of its national currency and rejections of involvement with international financial institutions enabled it to stay secure from recent world financial turbulence.ii Some negative consequences of globalization including cultural eradication, environmental decline and weakening the state sovereignty are assumed, but economic isolation and internet censorship to stop or slow down this process have greater financial, social and political costs for the states. The natural flow of globalization is powerful, as people travel around the world and work in neighbouring countries, and while information technology is improving and international communication is reaching its high stages, it is impossible to remain isolated from the rest of the world.
Uzbekistan is one of the developing countries which has both rich natural and human resources. It is located in Central Asia, which is a core area of the Asian continent, and it has an area of 447,400 square kilometers and an estimated population of 29,559,100.iii China, Afghanistan and Russia surround Uzbekistan from three sides and influence the country in three different ways. The implicit character of the region’s political and social structure including slow economic growth, unemployment, environmental decline, and undemocratic governance are unsolved problems characteristic to the region. However, since breaking away from the former Soviet Union, Uzbekistan suffered a decline in real GDP along with other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States.iv Due to the damage in the Soviet economic chain and re-configuration in the state structure, unemployment and economic tension increased. Separation from the state-centered economy and committing to a gradual transition to a marked-based economy was Uzbekistan’s first step towards neo-liberal globalization. Progress with the economic policy reforms in Uzbekistan has been cautious, but the country has registered respectable achievements since its independence.v Currently, Uzbekistan attracts very small amounts of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), which is causing significant damage for its economic progress. The major economic reforms such as foreign investment law, contract and tax legislations, stableness of regulations, performance of the banking sector, internet and international communication quality all play a significant role for investors considering investing and conducting business in the country. The increase in foreign direct investment indicates its good performance in the global arena and competitiveness within global standards.
During the Soviet regime Uzbekistan mainly produced agricultural goods and raw materials, which caused a feeling of being far behind most of the world’s industrial development, international business experience, existence of modern technology and improvement in intellectual/managerial skills. Up to the present day Uzbekistan is a leading world producer of cotton and gold, and also produces significant amounts of non-ferrous metals, natural gas and oil.vi After untying itself from the Soviet supply and production chain, Uzbekistan urgently needed foreign direct investments because it is an important vehicle for industrial development, capital/skills inflow and to improve political/economic interaction with the rest of the world. Losing the Soviet umbrella was intimidating at times. Lacking international experiences, both political and economic, are required very cautious steps. Also, in traditional societies globalization is seen as a threat for cultural and religious traditions. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the idea of national identity and cultural uniqueness became even more desirable in Uzbekistan. At the same time alteration in traditions, improvement in technology and transformation in lifestyle was observable in the big cities. The natural flow of cultural globalization was still occurring regardless of the state’s antagonism toward it. The interrelationship between economy, technology and democracy defines neo-liberal globalization. It appears to be an intentional force to create one global culture in the planet by spreading through national borders without any hesitation, without much pushback, then integrating societies and altering cultures.
Opponents of globalization in Uzbekistan would argue that as globalization brings western ideology along with the western capital and skills, there are significant potential dangers of weakening the state’s sovereignty and loss of national and cultural identity.vii Investing a lot of power and capital might lead big corporations to a sophisticated form of colonization over poor countries. Foreign companies might invest money in developing countries for one reason; they try to take advantage of the cheap local labour force and cheap raw materials of the country. In addition, those who have employment in the foreign companies will have an immense pressure and threat of losing their job at any given time. Environmental standards might decline because of large manufacturing corporations, but what is more dangerous for Uzbekistan’s case is not allowing these changes, and experiencing, learning and forming applicable policies to prevent undesired consequences of globalization. State sovereignty of the United States, Russia, Canada or China did not weaken because of their high level of global involvement. The centerpiece of the globalization project is the belief in market liberalization that took hold under the debt regime. Local environmentalists, economists, financial advisors and policy providers need to analyze every possible positive and negative outcome to achieve equal efficiency for both sides.
Regardless of the president Karimov’s (incumbent president of Uzbekistan) very slow movements towards globalization, internet and media censorship, and the rejection of global financial institutions, progress of globalization is powerful and inevitable. Therefore, attracting foreign direct investment is critical for Uzbekistan to improve industrial development, to relieve the tension of shifting to a market-based economy and to accelerate the adaptation to more democratic practices. Foreign investments provide citizens with jobs and financial stability. The Uzbek government is unable to control currency inflation, and there is still a big gap between “black market” value and the value of national currency. National currency was not convertible until 2003, and even after the government formally agreed to currency convertibility Uzbekistan’s, currency rate did not improve.viii A very preventative trade regime and domineering policies continue to bring damaging effects on the economy. Uzbekistan needs a substantial structural reform to create a more desirable climate for foreign investors, strengthening the banking system and currency, and needs to release the agricultural sector from state control.
According to Pamila Blackmon Uzbekistan ranks second place between Central Asian countries for its richness to natural resources.
“Uzbekistan is considered moderately endowed with natural resources including gold, oil, natural gas and cotton. In fact, at independence, the country was ranked as the seventh largest producer of gold, the tenth largest producer of natural gas and the fourth largest producer of cotton in the world.”ix
As Blackmon discusses, foreign investors attracted more of the resources of neighbouring countries compared to Uzbekistan because of their investor-friendly legislations. For example, government of Kazakhistan implemented tax and investment legislations which made it more attractive to foreign investors, but Uzbekistan does not have such stable policy measures for an investment framework. Uzbekistan’s first “Law in Foreign Investment” was passed in 1994 and has been renewed very often, which made it even more difficult for investors to keep track of numerous modifications every time, and it increased doubt about the stability of the policies.x Uzbekistan’s tax code legislation was passed only in 1998, but it still does not have a clear rate for different enterprises. A lack of progress in tax legislation, banking sector reforms and the risk conducted in doing business with Uzbekistan have negative impacts on the number of firms doing business in the country.xi
As former US president Bill Clinton stated “globalization is about more than economics. America’s purpose must be to bring the world together around democracy, freedom and peace and oppose those who would tear it apart.” Regardless of what America’s purpose is in spreading globalization, every country should learn and adapt the best applicable features for the better future of its own citizens and country’s strong standing in the global arena. Globalization erased distance between different countries of the world. Communication technology and the internet are perhaps the most significant technological advancements of our time that accelerated globalization in the world. Trying to slow down the globalization process by state censorship is a temporary solution for authoritarian governments which has great negative consequences for the future of their own nation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, communist ideology was slipping out of the county and Uzbekistan had an urgent need to fill this gap. Because of this void, the idea of national identity and cultural uniqueness became significantly desirable; for example, names of historical heroes who lived in this region were again popularized. Regions, streets, theatres, buildings and parks were changed back to the original pre-Soviet names and styles. The Uzbek language was recognized as an official language and national celebrations like Navrus, Independence Day and religious festivities were added to the national identity with pride. Although the Uzbek government is criticized for oppressing religious citizens with ideals of “extremism”, many mosques were built and others were re-opened after the end of the Soviet regime. However, the undeniably beautiful look of the cities and costly celebrations in the capital city did not reduce unemployment, did not deepen democratic adaptations, did not increase the quality of education, and more significantly, did not significantly reduce poverty in the country. Education in Uzbekistan does not adhere to global education standards. Degrees and certificates can be purchased from educational institutions. Evidently, this isolation is causing more harm than benefits for Uzbekistan. Interest in education between youth declined significantly in last twenty five years.
Since 1991 Uzbekistan moved forward to liberal reform for its economic structure and made a remarkable shift from a centrally-planned economy to a market economy. The changes were overwhelming but not significantly beneficial for the majority of citizens. As importing gold, cotton and oil is not enough for improving economic development, having an exchange relationship with the neighbouring countries, more specifically countries with economic difficulties/crisis is the only option for surviving. Therefore, attracting foreign direct investments is an urgent need for the newly independent Uzbekistan. Foreign direct investments and capital inflow can decrease unemployment, improve education and skills, and relieve the tension of the transition to a market based economy. Additionally, foreign direct investments also bring new technologies, and powerful scientific and managerial skills.xii
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, Soviet economic chain between countries of former USSR was also diminished. The corresponding increase in unemployment pushed people to seek work in neighbouring countries.
“Unemployment and underemployment are persistent problems, and a significant number of people continue to look for jobs in Russia, Kazakhstan, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. Business analysts estimate that a high number of Uzbek citizens are working abroad. Estimates range from lows of 3 million to highs of 5 million Uzbek citizens of working age living outside Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan signed a labor agreement with Russia in 2007 to facilitate the temporary migration of Uzbek workers and the taxation of their income.”xiii
People who are working in Russia, Kazakhstan and other neighbouring countries are providing for their families, bringing new technologies, new skills and easing the economic tension in the country but they do not have social security, they do not live in acceptable living conditions while working and most of the time they do not have registration or work permits, putting their lives in danger. According to the Memorial – Human Rights Organization there are many occurrences were Uzbek workers were beaten, killed and forced to work for long periods of time for free.xiv Uzbekistan has natural and human resources, and desirable weather conditions to attract foreign investors. If Uzbekistan could adopt correct legislations, new economic reforms and desirable democratic practices, encouraging foreign investments would solve the bulk part of the economic and unemployment issues in the country.
Attracting foreign investors also depends on the availability of information about the country to the investors. Unfortunately, Uzbekistan has the most strict internet censorship in Central Asia, and information the Uzbek government releases is not reliable. Citizens inside the country are disconnected from the outer world and do not know more than what is permitted by the censors for them to know. After the Andigan massacre on May 13, 2005, where the Uzbek government unlawfully killed thousands of people in the central park of Andigan city during peaceful demonstrations, internet censorship increased. Citizens cannot access many websites that would perhaps encourage more democratic practices and inform their opinion of international organizations and knowledgeable analysts about the political and economic situation in Uzbekistan. Most of the people in Uzbekistan are forced to live with a dogmatic view about their country, president and constitution and express very high pride and satisfaction about their lives. Also, unreliable sources of information make Uzbekistan undesirable for foreign investors. Journalists and politicians suffer from oppression from the government, forced child labour is still in practice, and torture in the jails and uninformed detentions are part of the harsh centralized control. Arguably, the authoritarian character of the Uzbek government uses cultural erosion as an excuse for its anti-globalism actions, but in reality tries to hide its undemocratic way of governing the country from international eyes.xv As citizens of Uzbekistan are travelling to Russia to get a job and provide for their families, they are accessing the internet and other democratic media sources in different ways. Therefore, the Uzbek government is only limiting its own opportunities to attract foreign investors while trying to censor the internet.
Uzbekistan has great weather and very historical cities that always have been attractive for foreign tourists. Bukhara, Khiva, Samarkand and Urgench were historically located on the Silk Road which connected Mediterranean countries with China, yet tourism in Uzbekistan has a great need for improvement. Adopting the visa system was Uzbek government’s way of increasing security in the region. Obstacles in obtaining a visa are damaging tourism and causing economic difficulties for the region.
Uzbekistan as a landlocked country has a deep need for adopting globalism and opening doors to Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). During the Soviet era Uzbekistan was not able to develop the technology or the skills for broad industrial development. Therefore, foreign direct investment is going to be an important potential vehicle for industrial development, and capital and skills inflow. Uzbekistan can offer manufacturing of advanced technology, further processing of commodities, including agricultural, mineral and hydrocarbon primary products, the manufacture of pharmaceutical and medical equipment and tourism commodities and services. Unfortunately, the Uzbek government’s currents policies and regulations, visa system, internet censorship and very slow movement towards globalism are creating an unwelcoming climate for foreign investors.


Bolton, Kerry. ”Uzbekistan: An Outpost Against Globalization .” Foreign Policy Journal. 35. no. 1 (2010). http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2011/06/05/uzbekistan-an-outpost-against-globalization/ (accessed November 12, 2012).

Blackmon, Pamila. ”Divergent paths, divergent outcomes: linking differences in economic reform to levels of US foreign direct investment and business in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan .” Central Asian Survey. 26. no. 3 (2007): 355–372. http://ehis.ebscohost.com.login.ezproxy.library.ualberta.ca/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=121&sid=3349ccf7-416f-4c11-aeea-d7e325560581@sessionmgr114 (accessed November 12, 2012).

Bureau of Public Affaires, ”U.S. Department of State.” Last modified December 3, 2010. Accessed November 12, 2012. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2924.htm.

Craig Calhoun, “Imagining Solidarity: Cosmopolitanism, Constitutional Patriotism, and the Public Sphere,” Public Culture 14, no. 1 (2002): 147.

Ruzaliev, Odil. ”Attitudes Toward Globalization and the use of New Technologies.” The National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR). (2006). http://www.nbr.org/Downloads/pdfs/PSA/Uzk_Conf06_Ruzaliev.pdf (accessed November 12, 2012).

United Nations, Investment Policy Review of Uzbekistan. New York, Geneva: Routledge on behalf of United Nations, 1999

(”U.S. Department of State” December 3, 2010) http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2924.htm

Craig Calhoun, “Imagining Solidarity: Cosmopolitanism, Constitutional Patriotism, and the Public Sphere,” Public Culture 14, no. 1 (2002): 147.

Kerry Bolton, ”Uzbekistan: An Outpost against Globalization,” Foreign Policy Journal, 35, no. 1 (2010),


United Nations, Investment Policy Review of Uzbekistan, (New York, Geneva: Routledge on behalf of United Nations, 1999), 5-1.

United Nations, Investment Policy Review of Uzbekistan, (New York, Geneva: Routledge on behalf of United Nations, 1999), 5-1.
United Nations, Investment Policy Review of Uzbekistan, (New York, Geneva: Routledge on behalf of United Nations, 1999), 5.
Kerry Bolton, ”Uzbekistan: An Outpost against Globalization,” Foreign Policy Journal, 35, no. 1 (2010),
Pamila Blackmon, ”Divergent paths, divergent outcomes: linking differences in economic reform to levels of US foreign direct investment and business in
Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan ,” Central Asian Survey, 26, no. 3 (2007): 355–372,
Pamila Blackmon, ”Divergent paths, divergent outcomes: linking differences in economic reform to levels of US foreign direct investment and business in
Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan ,” Central Asian Survey, 26, no. 3 (2007): 355–372,
UNCTAD (1995). World Investment Report 1995: Transnational Corporations and Competitiveness
(Geneva and New York: United Nations).
(”U.S. Department of State” December 3, 2010) http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2924.htm


Pamila Blackmon, ”Divergent paths, divergent outcomes: linking differences in economic reform to levels of US foreign direct investment and business in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan ,” Central Asian Survey, 26, no. 3 (2007): 355–372,
(Давомини укинг...)

6/10/2011 11:09:37 PM
Кахваранг кузингнинг сохилларида...

Сендан юлдузу-ой таъма килмадим,
Бир жуфт жовдираган кузингдан булак,
куксимни куйдирган севгингдан булак.
Бармогингдан оккан сехрингдан булак
дунё муъжисасин сирин билмадим
баъридан юз бурдим, парво килмадим...
...йургагида етим нораста юрак.

Ургимчак турида хонкизи каби,
Туткунмен нигохинг кокилларига.
Такдир томирлари дордек осилган,
Кахваранг кузингнинг сохилларида...

5/3/2011 10:16:11 PM
Адашган Кема

Гарк булиб боради адашган кема
Сардорлик талашиб ахли килич-кин,
Тахликали махал лавозим нима,
Борми бир билгувчи юлдузлар сирин.

Мен огрик сезмадим овозларида,
Кулларида йукдир шулгут харита.
Огу асраюрлар ракибларига,
Йулчи юлдузларга бокмасалар сира.

Кузимдан мехрингни сидириб ташлаб
Дунёга юзлансам бошка куз билан.
Эрмак булган жонинг куксимда какшаб,
Багримда ут булиб ёнади Ватан.

Кафтимда гижимлаб юрак чаногин
Малхам излаюрман асрий дардингга.
Бошингда кутармай ёвлар ярогин
Юлдузлар йул очсин Ватан, багрингга.
(Давомини укинг...)

5/3/2011 10:15:39 PM
Арвох каби изгиб туйдирдинг

Зарраларга булиб ташладим
Колмасин деб жисмингдан нишон.
Жахл коникди.... сунгра йигладим,
Кейин булди юрак багрим кон...

Вох куйдиргимидинг куйдирдинг,
жон беомон юрак хуржида.
Арвох каби изгиб туйдирдинг,
Кундуз кечаларин тушида.

5/3/2011 10:14:29 PM

Файласуф булдингми хали билмадим,
Уксима, буласан булмаган булсанг.
Сукрот хаётини укиб, музладим,
Бечорани жуфти суймаган экан...